Blood Cell Morphology, Erythrocyte Size, and Micronucleus Counts of Neurergus crocatus (Cope, 1862) (Urodela: Salamandridae) in Turkey

Yücel Başimoğlu Koca, Serdar Koca, Kurtuluş Olgun, Pınar Beytaş, Nazan Taşkin Üzüm


In this study, which was carried out in June 2004, erythrocyte sizes of Neurergus crocatus were examined. Specimens of N. crocatus were collected from Şırnak, Turkey. Morphological characteristics of peripheral blood cells were examined. Morphology of the erythrocytes and leukocytes were described using Wright’s technique. Erythrocytes and their nuclei sizes were measured using an ocular micrometer. Mean length and width of the erythrocytes in N. crocatus were 32.6 ± 2.46 and 23.8 ± 2.49 μm, respectively (surface 610.9 μm2) and mean length and width of their nuclei were 15.3 ± 1.30 and 9.6 ± 0.76 μm, respectively (surface 115.5 μm2). Micronucleated nuclei were counted among 1000 randomly chosen erythrocytes from each blood smears. The micronucleated erythrocyte values were 0.001 and 0 for males and females, respectively.


Neurergus crocatus; Urodela; blood cells morphology; erythrocyte size; micronucleus

Full Text:



Arıkan H. (1989), «Investigation on the blood cell counts of Rana ridibunda (Anura: Ranidae) populations in Anatolia», Doğa Tur. Zool. D., 13(2), 54 – 59 [in Turkish].

Arıkan H., Atatür K. M., and Çevik İ. E. (1999), «A serological investigation of Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) (Sauria: Lacertidae) populations in Turkey», Tur. J. Zool., 23, 227 – 230.

Arıkan H., Olgun K., Tok C. V., and Çevik İ. E. (2001), «Morphological and serological investigations on the mountain frogs of the Mid-Taurus range between East longitudes 33° and 36°», Tur. J. Zool., 25, 11 – 17.

Arıkan H., Olgun K., Ilgaz Ç., Baran İ., and Kumlutaş Y. (2003), «Erythrocyte size and number in Neurergus strauchii (Urodela: Salamandridae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 10(3), 163 – 166.

Atatür M. K., Arıkan H., and Mermer A. (1998), «Erythrocyte size of some urodels From Turkey», Tur. J. Zool., 22, 89 – 91.

Atatür K. M., Arıkan H., and Çevik İ. E. (1999), «Erythrocyte Sizes of Some Anurans From Turkey», Tur. J. Zool., 23, 111 – 114.

Azevedo A. and Lunardi L. O. (2003), «Cytochemical characterization of eosinophilic leukocytes circulating in the blood of the turtle (Chrysemys dorbignih)», Acta Histochem., 105(1), 99 – 105.

Baran İ. and Öz M. (1986), «On the occurrence of Neurergus crocatus and Neurergus strauchii in Southeast Anatolia», Zool. Middle East, 1, 96 – 99.

Bueno A. M. S., Pereira C. A. B., and Robollo-Gay M. N. (2000), «Environmental genotoxicity evaluating using cytogenetic end points in wild rodents», Env. Health Persp., 108, 1165 – 1169.

Burns L. (1911), «Red blood cells», in: Studies in the Osteopathic Sciences Cells of the Blood. Vol. 4., /bur4ch06.html.

Campbell T. W. (2004), Hematology of Lower Vertebrates, Internal Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Canfield P. J. and Shea G. M. (1988), «Morphological observations on the erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of blue tongue lizard (Lacertilia: Scincidae, Tiliqua)», Anat. Histol. Embryol., 17, 328 – 342.

Canfield P. J. (1998), «Comparative cell morphology in the peripheral blood film from exotic and native animals», Aust. Vet. J., 76, 793 – 800.

Cristaldi M., Ieradi L. A., Odroiu I., and Zilli R. (2004), «Comparative evaluation of background micronucleus frequencies in domestic mammals», Mutation Res., 559, 1 – 9.

Evans G. (1939), «Factors influencing the oxygen consumption of several species of plethodontid salamanders in aerial and aquatic media», Ecology, 20, 74 – 95.

Fernandez M., l’Haridon J., and Gourthier L. (1993), «Zool-Moreux, Amphibian micronucleus test(s), a simple and reliable method for evaluating in vivo genotoxic effects of freshwater pollutants and radiations. Initial assessment», Mutation Res., 292, 83 – 99.

Grisolia C. K. and Starling F. L. R. M. (2001), «Micronuclei monitoring of fishes from Lake Paranoa, under influence of sewage treatment plant discharges», Mutation Res., 491, 39 – 44.

Harris J. (1963), The Red Cell, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Hartman F. A. and Lessler M. A. (1964), «Erythrocyte measurements in fishes, amphibians and reptiles», Biol. Bull., 126, 83 – 88.

Hutchison H. V. and Szarski H. (1965), «Number of erythrocytes in some amphibians and reptiles», Copeia, 1965(3), 373 – 375.

Knotkova Z., Doubak J., Knotek Z., and Hajkova P. (2002), «Blood cell morphology and plasma biochemistry in Russian tortoises (Agrionemys horsfieldi)», Acta Vet. Brno, 71, 191 – 198.

Leviton A. E., Anderson S. C., Adler K., and Minton S. A. (1992), Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles, Soc. for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford (OH).

Mateo M. R., Roberts E. D., and Enrigth F. M. (1984), «Morphologic, cytochemical, and functional studies of peripheral blood cells of young healthy American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)», Am. J. Vet. Res., 45, 1046 – 1053.

Meier J. R., Wernsing P., and Torsella J. (1999), «Feasibility of micronucleus methods for monitoring genetic damage in two feral species of small mammals», Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 33, 219 – 225.

Saint-Girons M. C. (1970), «Morphology of the circulating blood cells», in: Gans C., Parsons T. C. (eds.), Morphology C. Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 3, Acad. Press, New York, pp. 73 – 91.

Schmidtler J. J. and Schmidtler J. F. (1970), «Morphologie, Biologie und Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen von Neurergus strauchii aus der Türkei», Senckenb. Boll., 51, 42 – 53.

Schmidtler J. J. and Schmidtler J. F. (1975), «Untersuchungen an westpersischen Bergbachmolchen der Gattung Neurergus», Salamandra, 11, 84 – 98.

Schmidtler J. F. (1994), «Eine Übersicht neuerer Untersuchungen und Beobachtungen an der vorderasiatischen Molchgattung Neurergus Cope, 1862», Abh. Ber. Naturk. Magdeburg, 17, 193 – 198.

Sevinç M., Uğurtaş İ. H., and Yıldırımhan H. S. (2000), «Erythrocyte measurements in Lacerta rudis (Reptilia, Lacertidae)», Tur. J. Zool., 24, 207 – 209.

Sevinç M. and Uğurtaş İ. H. (2001), «The morphology and size blood cells of Lacerta rudis bithynica», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 9, 122 – 129.

Sparreboom M., Steinfartz S., and Schultschik G. (2000), «Courtship behavior of Neurergus (Caudata: Salamandridae)», Amphibia–Reptilia, 21, 1 – 11.

Steinfartz S., Hwang U. W., Tautz D., Öz M., and Veith M. (2002), «Molecular phylogeny of the salamandrid genus Neurergus: evidence for a intrageneric switch of reproductive biology», Amphibia–Reptilia, 23, 419 – 431.

Taylor K. and Kaplan H. M. (1961), «Light microscopy of the blood cells of Pseudemyd Turtles», Herpetologica, 17, 186 – 192.

Uzzell T. (1964), «Relation of the diploid and triploid species of the Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex (Amphibia: Caudata)», Copeia, 1964(2), 257 – 300.

Vernberg J. F. (1955), «Hematological studies on salamanders in relation to their ecology», Herpetologica, 11, 129 – 133.

Vigano L., Camoirano A., Izzotti A., D’Agostini F., Polesello S., Francisci C., and De Flora S. (2002), «Mutagenity of sediments along the Po River and genotoxicity biomarkers in fish from polluted areas», Mutation Res., 515, 125 – 134.

Zuniga-Gonzales G., Torres-Bugarin O., Ramirez-Munoz M. P., Ramos A., Fanti-Rodriguez E., Portilla E., Garcia-Martinez D., Cantu J. M., Gallegos-Arreola M. P., and Sanchez-Corona J. (1996), «Spontaneous micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes from 35 mammalian species»», Mutation Res., 369, 123 – 127.

Zuniga-Gonzales G., Ramirez-Munoz M. P., Torres-Bugarin O., Perez-Jimenez J., Ramos-Mora A., Zamora-Perez A., Gallegos-Arreola M. P., and Sanchez-Corona J. (1998), «Micronuclei in the domestic cat (Felis domesticus) peripheral blood by colchicine and cytosine-arabinoside», Mutation Res., 413, 187 – 189.

Zuniga-Gonzalez, G., Torres-Bugarin O., Luna-Aguirre J., Gonzales-Rodriguez A., Zamora-Perez A., Gomez-Meda B. C., Ventular-Aguilar A. J., Ramos-Ibarra M. L., Ramos-Mora A., Ortiz G. G., and Gallegos-Arreola M. P. (2000), «Spontaneous micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes from 54 animal species (mammals, reptiles and birds). Part 2», Mutation Res., 467, 99 – 103.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email