The Study of the Development of Middle Asiatic Tetraploid Green Toads (Amphibia: Bufonidae) with Notes on Some Infraspecific and Interspecific Differences within Bufo viridis Complex

Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Irina Arifulova, Elena Gnidenko, Cristina Giacoma


We provide a staging table of normal development of tetraploid green toad of Bufo viridis complex. The eggs were incubated under controlled laboratory conditions up to the end of larva metamorphosis. The table includes 46 stages. The larva belongs to Type IV of Orton (1953). The tadpoles have the sinistral spiracle and earlier left side protrusion of the forelimb. Labial teeth row formula (LTRF) is 2/3 with break in A-2 that is typical for Bufonidae in general. Hatching of tetraploid green toads takes place very early at stages 15 – 16 when adhesive organ is not completed and tail bud just appeared. We compared the external morphology of incubated tetraploid eggs and larvae with that of green toads from diploid and tetraploid green toad samples developing in nature. Infra- and interspecific differences were not significant and concerned to slight delay or overtaking in the development of some characters. Size comparison has shown greater maximal means of total length in diploid specimens. Both diploid and tetraploid samples demonstrate a high variation of labial tooth-row pattern related to break, fusion or much less typical reduction of tooth rows.


Anura; Bufonidae; Bufo viridis complex; tetraploid toads; staging table; eggs; larvae; external morphology; coloration; tooth-row pattern variation; operculum development

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