Phylogeography and Systematics of Lacerta agilis Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences: First Results

S. A. Kalyabina, K. D. Milto, N. B. Ananjeva, L. Legal, U. Joger, M. Wink

Abstract


The phylogeny and phylogeography of Lacerta agilis was inferred from the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Lacerta agilis (Sauria: Lacertidae) is a widespread species composed of several described subspecies. Fifty specimens of Lacerta agilis were studied from different locations throughout the distribution range. Two species, Lacerta media and Lacerta praticola were used as outgroup taxa. Within Lacerta agilis three genetically distinct groups were found. The first monophyletic group (morphologically treated as L. a. brevicaudata and L. a. exigua subspecies) includes specimens from a large part of European Russia, Caucasus, and Kazakhstan. The second monophyletic group comprises two subgroups of L. a. agilis specimens from Denmark, Germany, Czech Republic and L. a. chersonensis from Northwest Russia. Specimens of L. a. boemica from Northern Caucasus form the separate group, which appears to be genetically distinct from other groups of Lacerta agilis. Some hypotheses on the history of the distribution of Lacerta agilis are proposed considering the molecular data.

Keywords


lizards; Lacertidae; Lacerta agilis; phylogeography; systematics; mitochondrial DNA; cytochrome b

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ananjeva N. B., Munkhbayar Kh., Orlov N. L., Orlova V. F., Semenov D. V., and Terbish Kh. (1997), Reptiles of Mongolia. Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolia, KLK Ltd., Moscow [in Russian].

Arnold E. N. (1973), «Relationships of the palearctic lizards assigned to the genera Lacerta, Algyroides and Psammodromus (Reptilia: Lacertidae)», Bull. Brit. Mus., 25(8), 289 – 366.

Baranov A. S. (1982), «Phenogeography and reconstruction of history of the species», in: Phenetica of the Populations, Moscow, pp. 201 – 214 [in Russian].

Bischoff W. (1988), «Zur Verbreitung und Systematik der Zauneidechse, Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758», Mertensiella, No. 1, 11 – 30.

Brown W. M., Prager E. M., Wang A., and Wilson A. C. (1982), «Mitochondrial DNA sequence of primates: tempo and mode of evolution», J. Mol. Evol., 18, 225 – 239.

Čugunov S. M. (1911), «Notice sur les amphibiens et les reptiles, récoltés dans les environs de la station Ilanskaia du chemin de fer Transsiberien en 1910», Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, 15, 1 – 23 [in Russian].

Darevsky I. S., Szczerbak N. N., Peters G., et al. (1976), «Systematics and intraspecific structure» in: Sand Lizard, Nauka, Moskow, pp. 53 – 95 [in Russian].

Fuller S., Baverstock P. B., and King D. (1998), «Biogeographic origins of goannas (Varanidae): a molecular perspective», Mol. Phyl. Evol., 9, 294 – 307.

Gullberg A., Olsson M., and Tegelström H. (1998), «Colonization, genetic diversity, and evolution in the Swedish sand lizard, Lacerta agilis (Reptilia, Squamata)», Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 65, 257 – 277.

Hedges S. B., Bezy R. L., and Maxon L. R. (1991), «Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Xantuziid lizards inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences», Mol. Biol. Evol., 8, 767 – 780.

Kastschenko N. F. (1899), «Results of the Altaic zoological expedition from (in) 1898 year. Vertebrata», Izv. Imp. Tomsk Univ., 16, 1 – 158 [in Russian].

Kastschenko N. F. (1909), «Les reptiles et amphibiens, pris par les expéditions 1902 – 6, 1908 du prof. V. V. Sapošnikov dans l’Asie centrale», Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, 14, 119 – 130 [in Russian].

Kocher T. D., Thomas W. K., Meyer A., Edwards S. V., Pääbo S., and Villablanca F. X. (1989), «Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers», Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 6196 – 6200.

Munkhbayar Kh., Terbish K., and Munkhbaatar M. (1998), «Sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) in Mongolia», in: Abstrs. of the Third Asian Herpetol. Meeting, Almaty, p. 23.

Muskhelishwili T. A. (1967), «On systematic position and distribution of sand lizards (Lacerta agilis Linnaeus) from Eastern Georgia», Byull. AN GrSSR, 48(1), 187 – 190 [in Russian].

Peters G. (1958), «Die Zauneidechse des Kleinen Kaukasus als besondere Unterart — Lacerta agilis brevicaudata ssp. n»., Zool. Jahrb., Jena, 86(1/2), 127 – 138.

Roytberg E. S. (1982), «Evaluation of the possibility of hybridization between Lacerta agilis and L. strigata (Sauria, Lacertidae) in Daghestan», Zool. Zh., 61(2), 249 – 253 [in Russian].

Roytberg E. S. (1986), «Discrete variants of scutellation in the lizards Lacerta agilis and Lacerta strigata from Daghestan», Trudy Zool. Inst. AN SSSR, 158, 131 – 138 [in Russian].

Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., and Maniatis T. (1989), Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York.

Schmidtler J. F. (1986), «Orientalische Smaragdeidechsen: 2. Über Systematik und Synökologie von Lacerta trilineata, L. media und L. pamphylica (Sauria: Lacertidae)», Salamandra, 22(2/3), 126 – 146.

Suchow G. F. (1929), «Description of a new species of lizards from the environs of Vladicaucasus (Lacerta boemica sp. nov.)», Mem. Classe Scien. Phys. Mathem., 13(1), 117 – 119.

Sukhov G. F. (1948) «Review of lizards of subgenus Lacerta (Sauria), occuring in USSR», Trudy Zool. Inst. AN SSSR, 7(3), 101 – 117 [in Russian].

Swofford D. L. (2000), PAUP. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony. Test Version. — Computer Program Distributed by the Illinois National History Survey, Champaign, IL, USA.

Szczerbak N. N., Ostashko N. G., Baranov A. S., et al. (1976), «The range», in: The Sand Lizard, Nauka, Moscow, pp. 9 – 52 [in Russian].

Tertyshnikov M. F., Schepotiev N. V., Bulakhov V. L., et al. (1976), «The habitat», in: The Sand Lizard, Nauka, Moscow, pp. 162 – 178 [in Russian].

Yablokov A. V., Baranov A. S., and Rozanov A. S. (1981a), «Geographical variability of unmetrical characteristics of sand lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) coloration», Vestn. Zool., 2, 14 – 21 [in Russian].

Yablokov A. V., Baranov A. S., and Rozanov A. S. (1981b), «Reconstruction of species microphylogenesis (following the example of sand lizard Lacerta agilis study)», Vestn. Zool., 3, 11 – 16 [in Russian].

Yang Z. (1994), «Estimating the pattern of nucleotide substitution», J. Mol. Evol., 39, 105 – 111.

Zang D.-X. and Hewitt G. M. (1996), «Nuclear integrations: Challenges of mitochondrial DNA markers», Trends Ecol. Evol., 11, 247 – 251.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.