Distribution, Biology and Comparative Morphology of the Snakes of Xenopeltis Genus (Serpentes: Macrostomata: Xenopeltidae) in Vietnam

Nikolai L. Orlov

Abstract


New records of X. hainanensis, data on distribution and natural history of X. hainanensis and X. unicolor in Vietnam as well as comparison of the morphological characters of both species are at first presented. Morphological character set includes the data on the body, head and tail proportions, eye, skull and brain case shape, craniological and scalation characters. More wide diagnosis of Xenopeltis genus and identification keys are presented. New data show considerable differences in morphology and biology of these species that are important for the estimation of taxonomic status of X. hainanensis and phylogeny of the primitive snakes.


Keywords


Reptilia; Serpentes; Xenopeltidae; Xenopeltis; X. unicolor; X. hainanensis; distribution; morphology; natural history; Vietnam

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bourret R. (1936), Les serpentes de l’Indochine. Tome 2. Catalogue systématique descriptif, Henri Basuyau and Cie., Toulouse (France).

Campden-Main S. M. (1970), A Field Guide to the Snakes of south Vietnam, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

David P. and Vogel G. (1996), The Snakes of Sumatra. An Annotated Checklist and Key with Natural History Notes, Edition Chimaira.

Deuve J. (1970), «Serpents du Laos», Mem. O.R.S.T.O.M. (Paris), No. 39, 1 – 251.

Green H. W. (1997). Snakes. Evolution of mystery in nature. Univ. Calif. Press., Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.

Gue Peng, Fu-ji Zhang, and Yue-Yinh Chen (1998), «Catalogue of type specimens of reptiles in the herpetological collections of Chengdu Institute of Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 8, 43 – 47.

Hu and Zhao E.-M. (1972), In: E.-M. Zhao (as Djao), Key to Chinese Snakes (= Mat. Herpetetol. Res., 1), Chengdu.

Hu and Zhao E.-M. (1975), «Three new species of reptiles from Hainan island, Guangdong Province», Acta Zool. Sinica, 21(4), 379 – 384.

Kluge A. (1991), «Boine snake phylogeny and research cycles», Misc. Publ. Zool. Univ. Michigan, No. 178, 1 – 58.

Mahendra B. C. (1984), «Handbook of the snakes of India, Ceylon, Burma, Bangdladesh and Pakistan», Ann. Zool. (Agra), B, 22.

McDiarmid R. W., Campbell J. A., and T’Shaka A. Touré (1999), Snake Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Vol. 1, Herpetol. League.

Mertens R. (1943), «Systematische and ökologische Bemerkungen über die Regenbogenschlange, Xenopeltis unicolor Reinwardt», Zool. Garten (N. F.), 15(5/6), 213 – 220.

Pauwels O. S. G., David P., Maderson P. F. A., Dereck W., and Kumos Ch. (2000), «Dorsal scale microstructure of Xenopeltis unicolor (Serpentes, Xenopeltidae): description and position among the ophidian microdermatoglyphic pattrens», Dumerilia, 4(2), 99 – 111.

Price R. and Kelly P. (1989), «Microdermatoglyphics: basal patterns and transition zones», J. Herpetol., 23(3), 244 – 261.

Rieppel O. (1977), «Studies on the skull of the Henophidia (Reptilia: Serpentes)», J. Zool. (Lond.), 181(2), 145 – 173.

Romer A. S. (1976), Osteology of the Reptiles. Third Edition, Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago – London.

Saint Girons H. (1972), «Les Serpents du Cambodge. Mem. du Mus. Nat. D’Histoire Natur»., in: Nouvelle Ser. Seria A. Zoologie, Tome LXXIV, pp. 1 – 165.

Smith M. A. (1943), The Fauna of British India, Ceylon, and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indochinese Subregion. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III. Serpentes, Taylor and Francis, New Deli.

Seigel R. A., Collins J. T., and Novak S. S. (eds.) (1987), Snakes: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Macmillan, New York – Toronto – London.

Taylor E. H. (1965), «The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters», Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. (Lawrence), 45(9), 609 – 1096.

Tatarinov L. P. (1964), «Ophidia», in: Rozdestvennsky ?. ?. and Tatarinov L. P. (eds.), Paleontology, Nauka, Moscow pp. 484 – 492 [in Russian].

Tweedie M. W. E. (1957), The Snakes of Malaya, Second edition, Government Printing Office, Singapore.

Underwood G. (1967), A Contribution to the Classification of Snakes, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London.

Welch K. R. G. (1988), Snakes of the Orient: a Checklist, Krieger Publ. Co., Malabar, Florida.

Zhao E. M. (1995), «Intraspecieifc classification of some Chinese snakes», Sichuan J. Zool., 14(3), 107 – 112 [in Chinese with English abstract].

Zhao E. (1997), «Intraspecific classification of some Chinese snakes», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 7, 170 – 172.

Zhao E. and Adler K. (1993), Herpetology of China. Contribution to Herpetology, No. 10, Soc. Study Amphib. Reptiles.

Zhao Ermi, Huang Meihua, Zong Yu, et al. (1998), Fauna Sinica. Reptilia. Vol. 3. Squamata. Serpentes, Science Press, Beijing.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.