Effects of Predation and Trophic Conditions on the Reproduction of Tylototriton verrucosus (Caudata: Salamandridae) in Darjeeling

Ritwik Dasgupta

Abstract


The facts that small hatchlings emerged from small eggs laid under high predation levels prevailing at the lower altitudes of distribution of this species in Darjeeling while larger hatchlings emerged from larger eggs laid under lower levels of predation at higher altitudes, show that predation is not selected for large egg and initial hatchling size in this salamandrid species. Metamorphic size was small under high predation rates because this species relied on crypsis for evading predators. Egg and hatchling size are related inversely to levels of primary productivity and zooplankton abundance in lentic habitats. Hatchling sizes are related positively to egg size and size frequency distribution of zooplankton. Small egg and small hatchling size have been selected for at the lower altitudes of distribution of this salamandrid in Darjeeling because predation rates increased in step with improvement in trophic conditions at the lower altitudes.


Keywords


Tylototriton verrucosus; egg size; hatchling size; predation intensity; trophic conditions; Himalayas; India

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arnold S. J. and Wassersug R. J. (1978), «Differential predation on metamorphic anurans by garter snakes (Thamnophis): social behavior as a possible defense», Ecology, 59(5), 1014 – 1022.

Brambilla D. J. (1980), «Seasonal changes in size at maturity in a small pond Daphnia», in: Evolution and Ecology of Zooplankton Communities. Vol. 3, W. C. Kerfoot (ed.), Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr. Spec. Symp., pp. 438 – 455.

Brambilla D. J. (1982) »,Seasonal variation in egg size and number in a Daphnia pulex population», Hydrobiologia, 97, 233 – 248.

Burgis M. J. and Walker A. P. (1971), «A comparison of zooplankton in a tropical and a temperate lake», in: Abstrs. of Limnogorum Conventus XVIII. Sessions in Leningrad. August 19 – 26, Nauka, Leningrad.

Coe M. J. (1974), «Observations on the ecology and breeding biology of the genus Chiromantis (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae)», J. Zool. (L.), 172, 13 – 34.

Collier K. J. and Winterbourne M. J. (1987a), «Faunal and chemical dynamics of acid and alkaline New Zealand streams», Freshwater Biol., 18, 227 – 240.

Collier K. J. and Winterbourne M. J. (1987b), «Faunal and chemical dynamics of some acid and alkaline lakes in New Zealand», Freshwater Biol., 21, 349 – 351.

Collier K. J. and Jackson R. D. (1989), «Spectrophotometric determination of dissolved organic carbon in some South Island streams and rivers», New Zealand J. Marine Freshwater Res., 23, 479 – 490.

Dasgupta R. (1988), «Young of the Himalayan newt», J. Beng. Nat. Hist. Soc. (N. S.), 7(1), 3 – 18.

Dasgupta R. (1995), «The trophic structure and physical characteristics of some lentic habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas», J. Beng. Nat. Hist. Soc., 14(1) 11 – 40.

Den Boer P. J. (1983), «How to study complicated processes under simplified conditions», Report 4th Symp. Carab., 81, 9 – 18.

Ferrier V. (1974), «Chronologie du development de l’amphibien urodele Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson (Salamandridae)», Ann. Embryol. Morphol. (Paris), 7, 407 – 416 [in French].

Green J. (1956), «Growth size and reproduction in Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera)», Proc. Zool. Soc. (L.), 126, 173 – 204.

Hoff K., Huq N., King V. A., and Wassersug R. J. (1989), «The kinematics of larval salamander swimming (Ambystomatidae: Caudata)», Can. J. Zool., 67, 2756 – 2761.

Ito Y. (1980), Comparative Ecology, 2nd Edition, Translated by J. Kikkawa, Cambridge Univ. Press.

Kaplan R. H. (1980), «The implications of ovum size variability for offspring fitness and clutch size within several populations of salamanders (Ambystoma)», Evolution, 34, 51 – 64.

Kerfoot W. C. (1974), «Egg-size cycle of a cladoceran», Ecology, 55, 1259 – 1270.

Kuz’min S. L. (1992), Trofologiya Khvostatykh Zemnovodnykh, Nauka, Moscow [in Russian].

Lawler S. P. (1989), «Behavioral responses to predation and predation risk in four species of larval anurans», Anim. Behav., 38(6), 1039 – 1047.

Manning B. J., Kerfoot W. C., and Berger E. M. (1978), «Phenotypes and genotypes in cladoceran populations», Evolution, 32, 365 – 374.

Nussbaum R. A. (1968), Geographic Variation in Dicamptodon ensatus (Eschscholtz) with Notes on the Life History and Zoogeography, M. S. Thesis, Cent. Wash. St. Coil., Ellensburg.

Nussbaum R. A. (1969a), «Nest and eggs of the Pacific giant salamander Dicamptodon ensatus (Eschscholtz)», Herpetologica, 25, 257 – 262.

Nussbaum R. A. (1969b), «A nest site of the Olympic salamander Rhyacotriton olympicus (Gaige)», Herpetologica, 25, 277 – 287.

Nussbaum R. A. (1985), «The evolution of parental care in salamanders», in: Miscellaneous Publications, Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, No. 169, Ann Arbor.

Nussbaum R. A. (1987), «Parental care and egg size in salamanders: an examination of the safe harbor hypothesis», Res. Population Ecol. (Kyoto), 29(1), 27 – 44.

Odum E. P. (1971), Fundamentals of Ecology, 3rd Edition, Saunders Int. Students Edition, Toppan, Tokyo.

Oldroyd H. (1964), The Natural History of Flies, Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Orr L. P. and Maple W. T. (1978), «Competition avoidance mechanisms in the salamander genus Desmognathus», Copeia, 1978(4), 679 – 685.

Pyastalova O. A. and Tarknishvilli D. N. (1989), Ékologiya Ontogeneza Khvostatykh Amfibii i Problema Sushchestvovaniya Blizkikh Vidov, Nauka, Sverdlovsk [in Russian].

Richards S. J. and Bull C. M. (1990), «Size limited predation on tadpoles of three Australian frogs», Copeia, 1990(4), 1041 – 1046.

Salthe S. N. (1969), «Evolutionary relationships in the reproductive modes and number and sizes of ova in the urodeles», Am. Midi. Nat., 81, 467 – 490.

Santanam R., Velayutham P., and Jegatheesan S. (1989), A Manual of Freshwater Ecology. An Aspect of Fishery Environment, Daya Publishing House, New Delhi.

Semlitisch R. D. (1990), «Effects of body size, sibship and tail injury on the susceptibility of tadpoles to dragon-fly predation», Can. J. Zool., 68(5), 1027 – 1030.

Semlitisch R. D. and Gibbons J. W. (1988), «Fish predation in size structured populations of tree frog tadpoles», Öcologia, 75, 321 – 326.

Semlitisch R. D. and Gibbons J. W. (1990), «Effects of egg size on success of larval salamanders in complex aquatic environments», Ecology, 71, 1789 – 1795.

Skelly D. K. and Werner E. E. (1990), «Behavioral and life historical responses of larval American toads to an odonate predator», Ecology, 71, 2313 – 2322.

Sommer U., Gilwicz Z. M., Lamport W., and Duncan A. (1986), «The PEG*-model of seasonal succession of planktonic events in freshwater», Arch. Hydrobiol., 106(4), 433 – 471.

Thiesmeier B. (1990), «Feilandbeobachtungen über abortiv gebilde und larvale extremitatenschaden beim Feuersalamander (Salamandra salamanders terrestria)», Herpetofauna, 12(40/06), 6 – 10 [in German].

Tilley S. G. (1970), Aspects of Reproductive Ecology of Desmognathus ochropaeus in Southern Appalachian Mountains, Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. Michigan.

Welch P. S. (1935), Limnology, McGraw Hill, New York.

Werner E. E. (1986), «Amphibian metamorphosis: growth rate, predation risk and optimal size at transformation», Am. Nat., 128, 319 – 341.

Wilbur H. M. (1987), «Regulation of structure in complex systems», Ecology, 68(5), 43 – 86.

Wilbur H. M. and Fauth J. E. (1990), «Experimental aquatic food-webs: interactions between two predators and two prey», Am. Nat., 135(2), 176 – 204.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30906/1026-2296-2019-4-%25s-163-169

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.