Structure, Localization, and Stability of Chromosomes in Karyotype Evolution in Lizards of the Lacertidae Family

Larissa A. Kupriyanova


The chromosomes of eight lacertid species were studied by standard and banding techniques (C- and NOR-banding, telomeric sequences) and chromosomal interlocation during mitosis and meiosis was investigated. The data obtained are discussed in the light of modern ideas of the interrelation between DNA changes, karyotype evolution, and speciation. The assumption is voiced on the optimal number of arms and, consequently, the “optimal” number of functional telomeres in the Lacertidae, which in its turn may be associated with the structure of the nucleus and with canalization of the genome as a whole.


Lacertidae; karyotype; chromosome; evolution

Full Text:



Arnold E. N. (1989), «Towards a phylogeny and biogeography of the Lacertidae: relationships within an Old-World family of lizards derived from morphology,» Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Zool.), 55(2), 209 – 257.

Bickham J. and Baker R. (1979), «Canalization model of chromosomal evolution,» Bull. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist., 13, 70 – 84.

Callan H. G., Gall J. G., and Berg C. A. (1987), «The lampbrush chromosomes of Xenopus laevis: preparation, identification and distribution of 5 s DNA sequences,» Chromosoma, 95, 236 – 250.

Capriglione T., Olmo E., Odierna G. and Kupriyanova L. (1994), «Mechanisms of differentiation in the sex chromosomes of Lacertidae,» Amphibia–Reptilia, 15(1), 1 – 8.

Cardone A., Capriglione T., Odierna G., Redi C., and Garagna S. (1990), «Genomic intraspecific variations in some population of Podarcis sicula,» in: Cytogenetics of Amphibian and Reptiles, E. Olmo (ed.), Birkhauser, Basel etc., pp. 247 – 254.

Chadov B. P. and Bannikova S. V. (1993), «Determination of interlocation of chromosomes during meiotic prophase Drosophila by co-orientation of non-homologues,» Genetika, 29(1), 42 – 53 [in Russian].

Eremchemko V. K., Panfilov A. M., and Carenko E. (1992), Some Aspects of Cytogenetical and Systematical Researches of Some Asian Species of the Scincidae and Lacertidae, Ilim, Bishchkek, pp. 1 – 181 [in Russian].

Howell W. M. and Black D. A. (1980), «Controlled silver-staining of nucleolar organizer regions with a protective colloidal developer: a 1-step method,» Experientia, 36, 1014.

King M. (1991), «The evolution of Heterochromatin in the Amphibian Genome,» in: Amphibian Cytogenetics and Evolution, Acad. Press, pp. 359 – 391.

Kupriyanova L. A. (1974), «Supernumeric chromosomes in Mabuya macularia septemtaeniolataTsitologiya, 16(12), 4519 – 1521 [in Russian].

Kupriyanova L. A. (1980), «B-chromosomes in the karyotype of Lacerta parva Boul,» in: Animal Genetics and Evolution. The Haque, Bring (ed.), Dr. W. Junk Publ., pp. 223 – 226.

Kupriyanova L. A. (1986), «Possible pathways of karyotype evolution in lizards,» Trudy Zool. Inst. AN SSSR, 157, pp. 86 – 100 [in Russian].

Kupriyanova L. A. (1989), «Cytogenetic evidence of genome interaction in hybrid Lacerta,» in: Evolution and Ecology of Unisexual Vertebrates, R. Dawley and J. Bogart (eds.), Bull. N. Y. Museum, Albany – New York, Vol. 466, pp. 236 – 239.

Kupriyanova L. A. (1990), «Cytogenetic studies in lacertid lizards,» in: Cytogenetics of Amphibian and Reptiles, E. Olmo et al. (ed.), Birkhauser, Basel, pp. 241 – 255.

Kupriyanova L. A. and Arronet V. N. (1969), «Karyotype of Eremias velox (Pallas),» Tsitologiya, 11(8), 1057 – 1060 [in Russian].

Meyne J., Baker R., Hobart H., Hsu T., Ryder O., Ward O., Wiley J., Wuster-Hill D., Yates T., and Moyzis R. (1990), «Distribution of non-telomeric sites of the (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequence in vertebral chromosomes,» Chromosoma, 99(1), 3 – 10.

Moyzis R., Buckigham J., Cram L., Dani M., Deaven L., Jones M., Meyne J., Ratliff R., and Wu J. (1988), «A highly conserved repetitive DNA sequence (TTAGGG)n present at the telomeres of human chromosomes,» Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 85, 6622 – 6626.

Odierna G., Kupriyanova L., Capriglione T., and Olmo E. (1993), «Futher data on lacertid sex chromosomes and their evolutionary trend,» Amphibia– Reptilia, 14(1), 1 – 11.

Olmo E., Odierna G., and Capriglione T. (1987), «Evolution of sex-chromosomes,» Chromosoma, 96, 33 – 38.

Olmo E., Odierna G., Capriglione T., and Cardone A. (1990), «DNA and chromosome evolution in lacertid lizards,» in: Cytogenetics of Amphibian and Repliles, E. Olmo et al. (ed.), Birkhauser, Basel, pp. 181 – 204.

Poltoratsky W. and Podgornay O. (1992), «The role of satellite DNA in spatial organization of the interphase nucleus chromatin,» Tsitologiya, 34(2), 3 – 10 [in Russian].

Schmid M. (1978), «Chromosome banding in Amphibia. Consitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer regions in Bufo and HylaChromosoma, 66, 361 – 388.


  • There are currently no refbacks.