A Case of Natural Triploidy in European Diploid Green Toad (Bufo viridis), with Some Distributional Records of Diploid and Tetraploid Toads

Leo J. Borkin, Dmitry A. Shabanov, Oleg V. Brandler, Oleg V. Kukushkin, Spartak N. Litvinchuk, Gleb A. Mazepa, Jury M. Rosanov

Abstract


A triploid female (3n = 33) was found in diploid species Bufo viridis from the Crimea Peninsula, Ukraine. The case is recognized as an occasional autotriploidy. No morphological differences were found between this triploid female and other diploid specimens of the sample. Three categories of triploids in the Bufo viridis group are classified. Based on six green toad samples identified by chromosome number, the distribution of diploid and polyploid toads in Kazakhstan is discussed.

Keywords


Amphibia; Anura; Bufo viridis group; polyploidy; karyotype; genome size; the Crimea Peninsula; Ukraine; Russia; Kazakhstan

Full Text:

PDF

References


Birstein V. I. (1981), «Specific differential staining patterns of chromosomes in the Anura, some species of the genera Rana and Bufo taken as an example», Zool. Zh., 60(2), 246 – 256 [in Russian, with English summary].

Bogart J. P. (1972), «Karyotypes», in: W. F. Blair (ed.), Evolution in the Genus Bufo, Univ. of Texas Press, Austin – London, pp. 171 – 195.

Borkin L. J. and Kuzmin S. L. (1988), «Amphibians of Mongolia: species account», in: E. I. Vorobyeva and I. S. Darevsky (eds.), Amphibians and Reptiles of the Mongolian People’s Republic. General Problems. Amphibians, Nauka, Moscow, pp. 30 – 197 [in Russian].

Borkin L. J., Caune I. A., Pisanetz E. M., and Rozanov Y. M. (1986a), «Karyotype and genome size in the Bufo viridis group», in: Z. Roček (ed.), Studies in Herpetology, Charles University, Prague, pp. 137 – 141.

Borkin L. J., Eremchenko V. K., and Rosanov J. M. (1997), «Distribution of and contact zones in the diploid-tetraploid Bufo viridis complex in Central Asia», in: Z. Roček and S. Hart (eds.), Herpetology’97. Abstrs. of the Third World Congr. of Herpetol., 2 – 10 August 1997, Prague, Czech Republic, p. 26.

Borkin L. J., Eremchenko V. K., Helfenberger N., Panfilov A. M., and Rosanov Yu. M. (2001a), «On distribution of diploid, triploid and tetraploid green toads (Bufo viridis complex) in south-eastern Kazakhstan», Russ. J. Herpetol., 8(1), 45 – 53 [see also Erratum in 8(3), 246].

Borkin L. J., Litvinchuk S. N., and Rosanov J. M. (1996), «Spontaneous triploidy in the crested newt, Triturus cristatus (Salamandridae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 3(2), 152 – 156.

Borkin L. J., Litvinchuk S. N., Rosanov J. M., and Milto K. D. (2001b), «Cryptic speciation in Pelobates fuscus (Anura, Pelobatidae): evidence from DNA flow cytometry», Amphibia–Reptilia, 22(4), 387 – 396.

Borkin L. J., Rosanov J. M., and Litvinchuk S. N. («2000», 2001), «Nuclear DNA content in some green toads (Bufo viridis complex) of Turkey and Iran», Russ. J. Herpetol., 7(3), 171 – 180.

Borkin L. J., Rosanov J. M., Terbish Kh., and Caune I. A. (1986c), «Distribution, karyology, taxonomic position and variability of toads of the Bufo viridis group in Mongolia», in: E. I. Vorobyeva (ed.), Gerpetologicheskiye Issledovaniya v Mongol’skoy Narodnoy Respublike [Herpetological Research in Mongolian People’s Republic], Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, pp. 120 – 143 [in Russian, with German summary].

Borkin L. J., Terbish Kh., and Caune I. A. (1986b), «Tetraploid and diploid toads from the Bufo viridis group in Mongolia», Dokl. AN SSSR, 287(3), 760 – 764 [in Russian; also translated in USA in Dokl. Biol. Nauk, Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR, 287(1 – 6), 243 – 246 (1986)].

Borkin L. J., Vinogradov A. E., Brushko Z. K., and Kuzmin S. L. (1995), «New records of tetraploid toads (Bufo viridis group) from Alma-Ata and Taldy-Kurgan Region, Kazakhstan», Russ. J. Herpetol., 2(2), 174 – 175.

Castellano S., Giacoma C., Dujsebayeva T., Odierna G., and Balletto E. (1998), «Morphometrical and acoustical comparison between diploid and tetraploid green toads», Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 63(2), 257 – 281.

Delpero M., Cervella P., Borkin L. J., Dujsebayeva T., Eremchenko V. K., and Balletto E. (2000), «Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of Asiatic population of the Bufo viridis complex», in: C. Giacoma (ed.), Atti I Congresso Nazionale della Societas Herpetologica Italica (Torino, 2 – 6 Ottobre 1996), Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, pp. 299 – 304.

Dujsebayeva T., Castellano S., Giacoma C., Balletto E., and Odierna G. (1997), «On the distribution of diploid and tetraploid green toads of the Bufo viridis complex (Anura; Bufonidae) in southern Kazakhstan», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 7, 27 – 31.

Dujsebayeva T., Castellano S., Magni P., and Odierna G. (2004), «Distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Aral Sea Basin and surrounding areas of Kazakhstan. Part I. The green toads of Bufo viridis complex (Amphibia: Anura)», Selevinia, 2003, 60 – 65.

Fikhtman B. S. (1989), «Contribution to diagnostics of green toads of the Bufo viridis complex in Kirghizia», in: N. N. Szczerbak (ed.), Voprosy Gerpetologii [The Problems of Herpetology]. Abstrs. of the 7th USSR Herpetol. Conf., Kiev, pp. 263 – 264 [in Russian].

Kawamura T. (1984), «Polyploidy in amphibians», Zool. Sci. (Tokyo), 1(1), 1 – 15.

Kryukov V. I., Rzepakovsky V. T., and Astapov V. P. (1985), «Karyotypic characteristics of seven toad samples from Tajikistan», Dokl. AN TadSSR, 28(10), 593 – 595 [in Russian].

Litvinchuk S. N., Rosanov J. M., and Borkin L. J. (2001), «Natural autotriploidy in the Danube newt, Triturus dobrogicus (Salamandridae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 8(1), 74 – 76.

Litvinchuk S. N., Rosanov J. M., Usmanova N. M., Borkin L. J., Mazanaeva L. F., and Kazakov V. I. (2006), «Variation of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 in populations of green toads (Bufo viridis complex) with various nuclear DNA content and ploidy», Tsitologiya, 48(4), 332 – 345 [in Russian], translated to English: Cell Tissue Biol., 2007, 1(1), 65 – 79.

Macgregor H. C. and Varley J. M. (1983), Working with Animal Chromosomes, Wiley, Chichester.

Masik E. Ju., Kadirova B. K., and Toktosunov A. T. (1976), «Karyotype pattern in the green toad Bufo viridis in Kirghizia», Zool. Zh., 55(11), 1740 – 1743 [in Russian, with English summary].

Mayr E. (1969), Principles of Systematic Zoology, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, etc.

Mezhzherin S. V. and Pisanets E. M. (1990), «Genetic structure and origin of Asiatic polyploid toads Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978», Dokl. AN USSR Ser. B Geol. Geogr. Khim. Biol., 8, 68 – 71 [in Ukrainian].

Morescalchi A. (1963), «Il corredo cromosom pg e il problema dei cromosomi sessuali in Bufo viridis Laur», Rend. Accad. Sci. Fis. Mat. Ser. 4, 30(anno 102), 236 – 240.

Mészáros B. (1973), «Critical studies on karyotypes of eight anuran species from Hungary and some problems concerning the evolution of the order», Acta Biol. Debrecina, 10 – 11(1972 – 1973), 151 – 161.

Odierna G., Aprea G., Capriglione T., Castellano S., and Balletto E. (2004), «Evidence for chromosome and Pst I satellite DNA family evolutionary stasis in the Bufo viridis group (Amphibia, Anura)», Chromosome Res., 12, 671 – 681.

Pisanets E. M. (1978), «On a new polyploid species of toads Bufo danatensis Pisanetz sp. n. from Turkmenia», Dokl. AN USSR Ser. B Geol. Geogr. Khim. Biol., 3, 280 – 284 [in Russian] or 277 – 282 [in Ukrainian].

Pisanets E. M. (1991), «The new data on karyology of the Bufo viridis complex (Amphibia, Bufonidae) and the questions of origin of Asiatic tetraploid toads», in: V. A. Cherlin and A. Yu. Tsellarius (eds.), Gerpetologicheskiye Issledovaniya [Herpetological Research], LISS, Leningrad, pp. 41 – 50 [in Russian, with English summary].

Pisanets E. M., Mezhzherin S. V., and Szczerbak N. N. (1996), «Studies on the hybridization and external morphology of Asiatic toads (Amphibia, Bufonidae), and the description of a new species, Bufo shaartusiensis sp. nov»., Dopov. Nazion. AN Ukrainy Mat. Prirod. Tekhn. Nauki, 6, 147 – 151 [in Ukrainian].

Popov P. and Banova M. (1976), «Investigation on the karyotype of Amphibia, Anura in Bulgaria. III. Karyotype of Bufo viridis Laur»., Trav. Sci. Univ. Plovdiv «Paissi Hilendarski» Biol., 14(4), 61 – 68 [in Bulgarian, with English summary].

Rosanov J. M. and Vinogradov A. E. (1998), «Precise DNA cytometry: investigation of individual variability in animal genome size», Tsitologiya, 40(8/9), 792 – 800 [in Russian].

Roth P. (1986), «An overview of the systematics of the Bufo viridis group in Middle and Central Asia», in: Z. Roček (ed.), Studies in Herpetology, Charles University, Prague, pp. 127 – 130.

Roth P. and Ráb P. (1986), «Karyotype analysis of the Bufo viridis group: systematic implications», in: Z. Roček (ed.), Studies in Herpetology, Charles University, Prague, pp. 131 – 135.

Roth P. and Ráb P. (1987), «Sequential chromosome banding studies in the natterjack toad, Bufo calamita», in: J. J. van Gelder, H. Strijbosch, and P. J. M. Bergers (eds.), Proc. of the 4th Ord. Gen. Meeting of the Soc. Eur. Herpetol., Nijmegen, pp. 335 – 338.

Schmid M. (1978), «Chromosome banding in Amphibia. I. Constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer regions in Bufo and Hyla», Chromosoma, 66, 361 – 388.

Stöck M. (1997), «Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Morphometrie di- und tetraploider Grünkröten (Bufo viridis – Komplex) in Mittelasien (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae)», Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden, 49(12), 193 – 222.

Stöck M. (1998), «Tetraploid toads (Bufo viridis complex) from north-western China and preliminary taxonomic conclusions for Bufo nouettei Mocquard, 1910», Z. Feldherpetol., 5, 139 – 166.

Stöck M. and Lamatsch D. K. (2002), «Triploide Wirbeltiere. Wege aus der Unfruchtbarkeit oder Eingeschlechtigkeit», Naturwissenschaftl. Rundschau, 55(7), 349 – 358.

Stöck M., Frynta D., Grosse W. -R., Steinlein C., and Schmid M. (2001a), «A review of the distribution of diploid, triploid and tetraploid green toads (Bufo viridis complex) in Asia, including new data from Iran and Pakistan», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 9, 77 – 100.

Stöck M., Günther R., and Böhme W. (2001b), «Progress towards a taxonomic revision of the Asian Bufo viridis group: current status of nominal taxa and unsolved problems (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae)», Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden, 51, 253 – 319.

Stöck M., Lamatsch D. K., Steinlein C., Epplen J. T., Grosse W. -R., Hock R., Klapperstück T., Lampert K. P., Scheer U., Schmid M., and Schartl M. (2002), «A bisexually reproducing all-triploid vertebrate», Nat. Gen., 30(3), 325 – 328.

Stöck M., Schmid M., Steinlein C., and Grosse W.-R. (1999), «Mosaicism in somatic triploid specimens of the Bufo viridis complex in the Karakoram with examination of calls, morphology and taxonomic conclusions», Ital. J. Zool., 66(3), 215 – 232.

Stöck M., Steinlein C., Lamatsch D. K., Schartl M., and Schmid M. (2005), «Multiple origins of tetraploid taxa in the Eurasian Bufo viridis subgroup», Genetica, 124, 255 – 272.

Ullerich F. H. (1966), «Karyotyp und DNS-Gehalt von Bufo bufo, B. viridis, B. bufo × B. viridis und B. calamita (Amphibia, Anura)», Chromosoma, 18(2), 316 – 342.

Wickbom T. (1945), «Cytological studies on Dipnoi, Urodela, Anura, and Emys», Hereditas, 31(3 – 4), 241 – 346.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.