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On Geographic Range, Diet and Conservation of Endemic Murree Hills Frog Nanorana vicina (Stoliczka, 1872)

Muhammad Rais, Saleha Abbassi, Sumbul Gill, Sadia Munir, Misbah Razzaq, Aneeza Islam


Murree Hills Frog, Nanorana vicina, is one of the under studied anuran species of South Asia. We hypothesized that the diet of Murree Hills Frog differed during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We found that the geographic range of the species in Pakistan is narrower than reported. It occurs in Tehsil Murree (District Rawalpindi, Province Punjab), District Abbotoabad (Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Districts Poonch and Bagh (Azad Jammu and Kashmir). We recovered 12 taxa from stomach contents during the breeding season. The most frequent food items included Coleopterans (60%, constant) and Hymenopterans (40%, secondary). The food items from order Coleoptera contributed the most in the stomach content volume (ml) 0.06, followed by Hymenoptera 0.05, and Isoptera 0.05. The frogs showed secondary degree of food preference for Coleopterans and occasional for other food items. We recorded ten food items during non-breeding season. The most frequent food items included Coleopterans (45%, secondary), Hymenopterans (40%, secondary) and Orthopterans (35%, secondary). The food items from order Coleoptera contributed the most in the stomach content volume (ml) 0.12, followed by Orthoptera 0.11. The species showed secondary degree of food preference for Coleopterans, Hymenopterans and Orthopterans and occasional for other food items. The food item taxa during breeding and non-breeding seasons did not differ significantly. We have reported major threats to the species and suggested research, conservation and management options.


Dicroglossidae; geographic range; stomach content flushing; urbanization; conservation; endemism

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