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Detection Probability and Site Occupancy of the Granular Spiny Frog (Quasipaa verrucospinosa) in the Tropical Rain Forests of Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam

Binh Van Ngo, Ya-Fu Lee, Chung D. Ngo


Amphibian species are rarely detected with perfect accuracy, regardless of the method employed. A large-scale assessment for Quasipaa verrucospinosa occupancy was conducted at 35 sites in the primary forest and 42 sites in the secondary forest of Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. Based on the detection data for each site, the distribution of Q. verrucospinosa was estimated in different habitat types using occupancy models. From the best model among all performed models, we estimated a site occupancy probability of 0.576 that was higher than the naive occupancy estimate of 0.403 and a 43.1% increase over the site proportion at which Q. verrucospinosa was actually observed. The site covariate of the primary forest was an important determinant of site occupancy, which was not associated with the variable of secondary forest. In a combined AIC model weight: the p(temperature), p(humidity), and p(precipitation) models have 47.3, 67.1, and 90.9% of the total, respectively; providing evidence that aforementioned environmental conditions were important sample covariates in modelling detection probabilities of Q. verrucospinosa. Our results substantiate the importance of incorporating detection and occupancy probabilities into studies of habitat relationships and suggest that the primary forests associated with weather conditions influence the site occupancy of Q. verrucospinosa in Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam.


detection probability; maximum likelihood; metapopulation; site occupancy; Quasipaa verrucospinosa; rainforests; Vietnam

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