Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Karyotypic Analysis of the Spined Toad, Bufo spinosus Daudin, 1803 (Amphibia: Bufonidae)

Dmitriy V. Skorinov, D. S. Bolshakova, D. Donaire

Abstract


For the first time, somatic chromosomes of Bufo spinosus were described (2n = 22). It was close to the karyotypes of other West-Palearctic species of the genus Bufo and consisted of 10 large metacentric (V), 2 large submetacentric chromosomes (SV), 8 small metacentric (v), and 2 small submetacentric chromosomes (sv): 10 V + 2 SV + 8 v + 2 sv, NF = 44. All chromosomes of B. spinosus were characterized by presence of heterochromatin blocks in centromeric regions. No Q-stained bright bands were found. Ag-staining detected a nucleolar organizer region in the end of the long arm of the sixth pair of chromosomes. In all males studied, a dimorphism was found in the sixth pair of chromosomes. One chromosome in this pair was smaller than the second one. Differences in position of nucleolar organizer region or centromeric index between these chromosomes were not revealed.

Keywords


Anura; common toads; centromere index; sex chromosomes; Spain; Morocco; Tunisia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Shehri A. H. and Al-Saleh A. A. (2005), «Karyotype of Amphibia in Saudi Arabia. 2. The karyotype of Hyla savignyi», J. Biol. Sci., 5, 768 – 770.

Anderson K. (1991), «Chromosome evolution in Holartic Hyla treefrogs», in: Green D. M. and Sessions S. K. (eds.), Amphibian Cytogenetics and Evolution, San Diego, pp. 299 – 331.

Arntzen J. W., Recuero E., Canestrelli D., and Martínez-Solano Н. (2013), «How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 69, 1203 – 1208.

Bewick A. J., Chain F. J. J., Zimmerman L. B., Sesay A., Gilchrist M. J., Owens N. D. L., Seifertova E., Krylov V., Macha J., Tlapakova T., Kubickova S., Cernohorska H., Zarsky V., and Evans B. J. (2013), «A large pseudoautosomal region on the sex chromosomes of the frog Silurana tropicalis», Gen. Biol. Evol., 5(6), 1087 – 1098.

Birshtein V. J. (1981), «Specific differential staining patterns of chromosomes in the Anura, some species of the genera Rana and Bufo taken as an example», Zool. Zh., 60(2), 246 – 256.

Birshtein V. J. and Mazin A. L. (1982), «Chromosomal polymorphism of Bufo bufo and C-banding pattern of B. b. verrucosissima», Genetica, 59, 93 – 98.

Brelsford A., Stöck M., Betto-Colliard C., Dubey S., Dufresnes C., Jourdan-Pineau H., Rodrigues N., Savary R., Sermier R., and Perrin N. (2013), «Homologous sex chromosomes in three deeply divergent anuran species», Evolution, 67(8), 2434 – 2440.

Brelsford A., Dufresnes C., and Perrin N. (2016), «Trans-species variation in Dmrt1 is associated with sex determination in four European tree-frog species», Evolution, 70(4), 840 – 847.

Bogart J. P. (1972), «Karyotypes», in: W. F. Blair (ed.), Evolution in the Genus Bufo, University of Texas Press, Austin – London, pp. 171 – 195.

Borkin L. J. (1984), «European-Far Eastern disjunctions in amphibian distributions: new analysis of the problem», in: Borkin L. J. and Ananjeva N. B. (eds.), «Ecology and Faunistics of Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR and Adjacent Countries», Tr. Zool. Inst. AN USSR, 124, 55 – 88 [in Russian].

Borkin L. J. and Litvinchuk S. N. (2013), «Amphibians of Palearctic: taxonomic composition», Tr. Zool. Inst. RAN, 317(4), 494 – 541 [in Russian].

Dufresnes C., Borzée A., Horn A., Stöck M., Ostini M., Sermier R., Wassef J., Litvinchuk S. N., Kosch T. A., Bruce W., Jang Y., Brelsford A., and Perrin N. (2015), «Sex-chromosome homomorphy in Palearctic tree frogs results from both turnovers and X-Y recombination», Mol. Biol. Evol., 32(9), 2328 – 2337.

Ezaz T., Stiglec R., Veyrunes F., and Marshall Graves J. (2006), «Relationships between vertebrate ZW and XY sex chromosome systems», Curr. Biol., 16, R736 – R743.

Frost D. R. (2017): Amphibian Species of the World: an On-line Reference. Version 6.0. http://research.amnh.org/ herpetology/amphibia/index.html [accessed August 22, 2017].

Garcia-Porta J., Litvinchuk S. N., Crochet P. A., Romano A., Geniez Ph., Lo-Valvo M., Lymberakis P., and Carranza S. (2012), «Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the West-Palearctic common toads (Bufo bufo species complex)», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 63, 113 – 130.

Grafodatsky A. S., Grigoriev O. V. and Isaenko A. A. (1978), «Differential staining of chromosomes in four species of amphibians», Zool. Zh., 57(8), 1279 – 1281.

Harms J. W. (1926), «Beobachtungen über Geschlechtsumwandlungen reifer Tiere und deren F1-Generation», Zool. Anz., 67, 67 – 79.

Hillis D. M. and Green D. M. (1990), «Evolutionary changes of heterogametic sex in the phylogenetic history of Amphibians», J. Evol. Biol., 3, 49 – 64.

Kami H. G. and Yadollahvand R. (2014), «First karyological study of the Talysh toad (Bufo eichvaldi) in Mazandaran Province, Iran (Anura: Bufonidae)», Bull. Environ. Pharm. Life Sci., 3(9), 75 – 78.

Kim Y. J., Sunwoo Y. I., and Rhee K. S. (1976), «Isozymes and karyotypes of Bufo species», Kor. J. Zool., 19(3), 123 – 141.

Litvinchuk S. N., Borkin L. J., Skorinov D. V., and Rosanov J. M. (2008), «A new species of common toads from the Talysh Mountains, South-Eastern Caucasus: genome size, allozyme, and morphological evidences», Russ. J. Herpetol., 15(1), 19 – 43.

Malcom J. W., Kudra R. S., and Malone J. H. (2014), «The sex chromosomes of frogs: variability and tolerance offer clues to genome evolution and function», J. Genomics, 2, 68 – 76.

Matsui M. (1980), «Karyology of Eurasian toads of the Bufo bufo complex», Annot. Zool. Jap., 53, 65 – 68.

Matsui M., Seto T., Kohsaka Y., and Borkin L. J. (1985), «Bearing of chromosome C-banding patterns on the classification of Eurasian toads of the Bufo bufo complex», Amphibia–Reptilia, 6, 23 – 33.

Mészáros B. (1973), «Critical studies on karyotypes of eight anuran species from Hungary and some problems concerning the evolution of the order», Acta Biol. Debrecina, 10 – 11, 151 – 161.

Morescalchi A. (1964), «Il corredo cromosomico dei Bufonidi Italiani», Boll. Zool., 31, 827 – 835.

Morescalchi A. (1977), «New developments in vertebrate cytotaxonomy. I. Cytotaxonomy of the amphibians», Genetica, 50(3), 179 – 193.

Odierna G., Aprea G., Capriglione T., Castellano S., and Balletto E. (2007), «Cytological evidence for population-specific sex chromosome heteromorphism in Palaearctic green toads (Amphibia, Anura)», J. Biosci., 32, 763 – 768.

Perrin P. (2009): «Sex reversal: a fountain of youth for sex chromosomes?», Evolution, 63(12), 3043 – 3049.

Pisanets E. M., Litvinchuk S. N., Rosanov J. M., Reminniy V. Yu., Pasynkova R. A., Suryadnaya N. N., and Matvyeyev A. S. (2009), «Common toads (Amphibia, Bufonidae, Bufo bufo complex) from the Ciscaucasia and north of the Caucasus: the new analysis of the problem», Zbirnik Prats’ Zool. Mus., 40, 83 – 125 [in Russian].

Ponse K. (1949), La Differenciation du Sexe et l’Intersexualite chez les Vertebres, F. Rouge & Sons.

Radchenko V. I. and Manilo V. V. (2009), «A comparatively kariological analysis of the toads Bufo (Amphibia, Anura) from Ukraine», Vestnik Zool., 43(6), 557 – 563 [in Russian].

Rao D.-Q., Yang D.-T., and Wang R.-F. (1998), «Comparison of karyotypes of four toads of the genera Bufo and Torrentophryne of China», Russ. J. Herpetol., 5(1), 65 – 69.

Recuero E., Canestrelli D., Vörös J., Szabó K., Poyarkov N. A., Arntzen J. W., Crnobrnja-Isailovic J., Kidov A. A., Cogalniceanu D., Caputo F. P., Nascetti G., and Martínez-Solano Н. (2012), «Multilocus species tree analyses resolve the radiation of the widespread Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae)», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 62, 71 – 86.

Rodrigues N., Studer T., Dufresnes C., Ma W. -J., Veltsos P., and Perrin N. (2017), «Dmrt1 polymorphism and sex-chromosome differentiation in Rana temporaria», Mol. Ecol., 26(19), 4897 – 4905..

Schmid M. (1978), «Chromosome banding in Amphibia. I. Constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer region in Bufo and Hyla», Chromosoma, 66, 349 – 345.

Sessions S. K. (1996), «Chromosomes: molecular cytogenetics», in: Hillis D. M., Moritz C. and Mable B. K. (eds.), Molecular Systematics. Second Edition, Sunderland, Sinauer, pp. 121 – 168.

Skorinov D. V., Berezina Y. A., Kidov A. A., Matushkina K. A., Pasynkova R. A., and Litvinchuk S. N. (2014), «Karyotype of the Eichwald’s toad, Bufo eichwaldi (Amphibia: Bufonidae)», Tr. Zool. Inst. RAN, 318(4), 424 – 432 [in Russian].

Spasić-Bošković O., Lazić T., Bilić G., and Vujošević M. (2000), «C-banding kariotypes and location of NOR’s in the toad species Bufo bufo and Bufo viridis from Yugoslavia», Genetika, 32, 145 – 153.

Ullerich F. H. (1966), «Karyotyp und DNS-Gehalt von Bufo bufo, B. viridis, B. bufo Ч B. viridis und B. calamita (Amphibia, Anura)», Chromosoma, 18, 316 – 342.

Uno Y., Nishida C., Oshima Y., Yokoyama S., Miura I., Matsuda Y., and Nakamura M. (2008), «Comparative chromosome mapping of sex-linked genes and identification of sex chromosomal rearrangements in the Japanese wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa, Ranidae) with ZW and XY sex chromosome systems», Chromosome Res., 16, 637 – 647.

Vitelli L., Batistoni R., Andronico F., Nardi I., and Barsacchi-Pilone G. (1982), «Chromosomal localization of 18S + 28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in evolutionarily diverse anuran amphibians», Chromosoma, 84, 475 – 491.

Wickbom T. (1945), «Cytological studies on Dipnoi, Urodela, Anura, and Emys», Hereditas, 31, 241 – 346.

Wiley J. E. (2003), «Replication banding and FISH analysis reveal the origin of the Hyla femoralis karyotype and XY/XX sex chromosomes», Cytogen. Gen. Res., 101, 80 – 83.

Yang Y. (1983), «A comparative study on three subspecies of Bufo bufo from China using techniques of C-banding, Ag-NORs and electrophoreses of sera and of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes», Acta Herpetol. Sin., 2(2), 1 – 9.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30906/1026-2296-2019-25-%25s-253-258

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.