Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Feeding Habits of Spot-Bellied Salamander Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi (Nesterov, 1916) Based on Examination of Three Populations from Zagros Mountains, Western Iran (Caudata: Salamandridae)

Farnaz Bozorgi, Bahram H. Kiabi, Haji Gholi Kami

Abstract


Feeding habits in three populations of fire salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi have been studied at Zagros Mountains in western part of Iran, Kurdistan and Kermanshah provinces. Adult individuals underwent stomach flushing were applied to in June and September 2014. All three populations consumed 107 prey items from nine taxa categories. Inorganic elements and vegetal maters also were found in stomach contents. The results show that Coleoptera and Homoptera hold highest and lowest percentage abundance food contents of all populations respectively. There are significance differences between the feeding habits of three populations. The most consumption and highest feeding diversity were registered in the steep slope of valley with permanent slow water fall, surrounded with humid soil that covered with carious plants so the salamanders can feed massively in this area. Also results show that the larger salamander (distinguished with SVL) consumed a significantly higher diversity and amount of prey items than smaller individuals so the adult size can affects S. i. semenovi hunting behavior. The findings also suggest that fire salamander has seasonal fluctuation in food items both by the number and variation. In June, salamanders consumed significantly higher diversity and amount of prey items. There is a straight relationship between gender of salamanders and their food habits. Females consumed significantly higher diversity and amount of prey items. Our study highlights the importance of preserving aquatic habitats as well as terrestrial areas because some feeding items (Gastropoda and Trichoptera) spend their life cycle in water.

Keywords


Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi, feeding habit, prey items, invertebrate, Zagros Mountains, Iran.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andreone F., Michelis S. D., and Clima V. (1999), «A montane amphibian and its feeding habits: Salamandra lanzai (Caudata, Salamandridae) in the Alps of northwestern Italy», Ital. J. Zool., 66, 45 – 49.

Balouch M. and Kami H. G. (1995), Amphibians of Iran, Tehran.

Bausmann G. A. and Whitaker J. O., Jr. (1987), «Studies of the habitat and food of sympatric populations of Plethodon cinereus (Green) and Plethodon dorsalis (Cope) in south central Parke County, Indiana», Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 97, 513 – 523.

Cecala K. K., Price S. J., and Dorcas M. E. (2007), «A comparison of the effectiveness of recommended doses Ms-222 (tricaine methane sulfonate) and OrJel (R) (benzocaine) for amphibian anesthesia», Herpetol. Rev., 38, 63 – 66.

Covaciu-Marcov S. D., Ferenti S., Citrea L., Cupsa D., and Condure N. (2011), «Food composition of three Bombina variegata populations from Valsan River Protected Natural Area (Romania)», Biharean Biologist, 5(1), 11 – 16.

Cuello M. A., Bello M. T., Kun M., and Ubena C. A. (2006), «Feeding habits and their implication for the conservation of the endangered semi aquatic frog Atelognathus patagonicus (Anura, Neobatrachia) in a northwestern Patagonian pond», Phyllomedusa, 5, 67 – 76.

Davic R. D. and Welsh H. H. (2004), «On the ecological roles of salamanders», Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 35, 405 – 435.

Duellman W. E. and Trueb L. (1994), Biology of Amphibians, The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore – London.

Dusen S., Oz M., and Tunc M. R. (2004), «Analysis of the stomachcontents of Lycian Salamander Mertensiella luschan (Steindachner, 1891) (Urodela: Salamandridae), collected from Southwest Turkey», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 10, 164 – 167.

Fachbach G., Kolossau I., and Ortner A. (1975), «Zur Ernahrungsbiologie von Salamandra s. salamandra und Salamandra atra», Salamandra, 11, 136 – 144.

Ferenti S., David A., and Nagy D. (2010), «Feeding-behaviour responses to anthropogenic factors on Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia, Caudata)», Biharean Biologist, 4(2), 139 – 143.

Folk D. G., Zwollo P., Rand D. M., and Gilchrist G. W. (2006), «Selection on knockdown performance in Drosophila melanogaster impacts thermotolerance and heat-shock response differently in females and males», J. Exp. Biol., 209, 3964 – 3973.

Fraser D. F. (1976), «Empirical analysis of the hypothesis of food competition in salamanders of the genus Plethodon», Ecology, 57(3), 459 – 471.

Guerrero F., Perez-Mellado V., Gil M. J., and Lizana M. (1990), «Food habits and trophic availability in the high mountain population of the spotted salamander from Spain (Salamandra salamandra almanzoris) (Caudata: Salamandridae)», Folia Zool., 89, 841 – 853.

Krebs S. D. W. (1986), Foraging Theory, Princeton Univ. Press, New Jersey.

Kuzmin S. L. (1986), «Elective feeding habits and feeding behavior of Siberian Angle Tooth larvae», Ékologiya, 16(5), 282 – 286 [in Russian].

Lizana M., Ciudad M. J., and Perez-Mellado V. (1986), «Uso de los resur: sostroficos en unacomunidadiberica de Anfibios», Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 1, 209 – 271.

Luthardt G. and Roth G. (1983), «The interaction of the visual and olfactory systems in guilding prey catching behaviour in Salamandra salamandra», Behaviour, 83, 69 – 79.

Lynch J. F. (1985), «The feeding ecology of Aneides flavipunctatus and sympatric plethodontid salamanders in northwestern California», J. Herpetol., 19(3), 328 – 352.

Maerz J. M., Myers E. M., and Adams D. C. (2006), «Fine scale trophic polymorphism in a terrestrial salamander», Evol. Ecol. Res., 8, 23 – 35.

Martof B. S. and Scoth D. C. (1957), «The food of the Salamander Leurognathus», Ecology, 38, 494 – 501.

Mitchell J. C. and Taylor J. A. (1986), «Predator-prey size relationships in a North Carolina population of Plethodon jordani», J. Herpetol., 20(4), 562 – 566.

Polymeni R. M., Radea C., and Papanayotou C. (20011)», Diet Composition of the Salamander Lyciasalamandra luschani basoglui on the Greek Island of Kastellorizo in the Southeast Aegean Sea», Asian Herpetol Res., 2(3), 155 – 160.

Pyke G. H., Pulliam H. R., and Charnov E. L. (1977)», Optimal foraging: A selective review of theory and tests», Quart. Rev. Biol., 52, 137 – 154.

Rastegar-Pouyani N. and Fizi H. (2006), «On a collection of the near east fire salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi (Salamandridae) from Kurdistan province, western Iran», Zool. Middle East, 37, 115 – 118.

Sole M., Dias I. R., Rodrigues E. A. S., Marciano E., Jr., Branco, J. M. S., Cavalcante P. K., and Rodder D. (2009), «Diet of Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from a cacao plantation in southern Bahia, Brazil», Herpetol. Notes, 2, 9 – 1.

Tomescu N., Ferenti S., Covaciu-Marcov S.-D., Sas I., and David A. (2010), «What do the terrestrial isopods eaten by some frogs from north-western Romania have to say», North-West J. Zool., 2, 268 – 274.

Vitousek P. M., Mooney H. A., Lubchenco J., and Melilo J. M. (1997), «Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems», Science, 277, 494 – 499.

Whiles M. R., Lips K. R., Pringle C. M., Kilham S. S., Bixby R. J., Brenes R. Connely R. J., Colon-Gaud S., Hunte-Brown J. C., Huryn M., Montgomery A. D., and Peteson C. (2006), «The effect of amphibian population decline on the structure and function of neotrophical stream ecosystems», Front. Ecol. Environm., 4, 27 – 34.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.