The Egyptian Toad, Sclerophrys regularis (Reuss, 1833) at Sharm El-Sheikh, with Comments on Amphibians of the Sinai Peninsula

L. J. Borkin, A. I. Goncharov, S. N. Litvinchuk

Abstract


The Egyptian toad, Sclerophrys regularis (Reuss, 1833) was observed in the palm grove in «Old town» of Sharm el-Sheikh, the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in September 2014. Local population consisted of numerous animals of different ages (with body sizes ranged from 2 – 3 to 6 – 7 cm). This is a new case of the introduction of amphibians to Sinai. All previously published Sinaitic records of five amphibian species are discussed in terms of taxonomy, distribution and zoogeographic affinity. Two sources of invasions, from the east (Gaza Strip and Israel) and from the west (Nile Valley), are considered.

Keywords


amphibians; the Egyptian toad; Sclerophrys regularis; the Sinai Peninsula

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abd Rabou A. F. N., Yassin M. M., Al-Agha M. R., Hamad D. M. and Ali A. K. S. (2007), «The herpetofauna of the Gaza Strip with particular emphasis on the vicinity of Wadi Gaza», The Islamic Univ. J. Ser. Nat. Stud. Eng., 15(1), 111 – 135.

Abdel-Karim A. E. and Michael M. I. (1993), «Regenerative abnormalities in hind limbs of Bufo regularis induced by repeated amputations. I. Early larval stages», Qatar Univ. Sci. J., 13(1), 101 – 108.

Al-Shehri A. H. and Al-Saleh A. A. (2008), «Karyotype of amphibians in Saudi Arabia. 3. The karyotype of Bufo regularis», Asian J. Cell Biol., 3(2), 67 – 71.

Anderson J. (1896), A Contribution to the Herpetology of Arabia. With a preliminary list of the reptiles and batrachians of Egypt, Taylor and Francis, London (reprinted by the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles as «Herpetology of Arabia», 1984).

Anderson J. (1898), Zoology of Egypt: Volume First. Reptilia and Batrachia, Bernard Quaritch, London.

Arnold E. N. (1980), «The reptiles and amphibians of Dhofar, southern Arabia», J. Oman Stud. Spec. Report, 2, 273 – 332.

Baha El Din S. (1992), «Notes on the herpetology of North Sinai», Br. Herpetol. Soc. Bull., 41, 9 – 11.

Baha El Din S. (2006), A Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo – New York.

Balletto E., Cherchi M. A., and Gasperetti J. (1985), «Amphibians of the Arabian Peninsula», Fauna Saudi Arabia, 7, 318 – 392.

Bar A. and Haimovitch G. (1989), A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel, Herzliya (Israel).

Barbour T. (1914), «Notes on some reptiles from Sinai and Syria», Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, 5, 73 – 92.

Boettger O. (1892), Katalog der Batrachier-Sammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main, Gebrüder Knauer, Frankfurt am Main.

Borkin L. J. (1999), «Distribution of amphibians in North Africa, Europe, Western Asia, and the former Soviet Union», in: W. E. Duellman (ed.), Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians: a Global Perspective, The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore – London, pp. 329 – 420.

Borkin L. J. and Litvinchuk S. N. (2013), «Amphibians of the Palearctic: taxonomic composition», Trudy Zool. Inst. RAN, 317(4), 494 – 541 [in Russian].

Boulenger G. A. (1880), «On the Palaearctic and Aethiopian species of Bufo», Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, 545 – 574.

Boulenger G. A. (1882), Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the collection of the British Museum, London.

Dehling J. M. and Sinsch U. (2013), «Diversity of ridged frogs (Anura: Ptychadenidae: Ptychadena spp.) in wetlands of the upper Nile in Rwanda: morphological, bioacoustic, and molecular evidence», Zool. Anz., 253(2), 143 – 157.

Eiselt J. and Schmidtler J. F. (1973), «Froschlurche aus dem Iran unter Berücksichtigung außeniranischer Populationsgruppen», Annal. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77, 181 – 243.

Elith J. (2002), «Quantitative methods for modeling species habitat: comparative performance and an application to Australian plants», in: Ferson S. and Burgman M. (eds.), Quantitative Methods for Conservation Biology, Springer, New York, pp. 39 – 58.

Flindt R. and Hemmer H. (1968), «Über Bufo viridis im Vorderen Orient», Senckenberg. Biol., 49(2), 99 – 106.

Flower S. S. (1925), «Contributions to our knowledge of the duration of life in Vertebrate animals. — II. Batrachia», Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 95(1), 269 – 289.

Flower S. S. (1933), «Notes on the recent reptiles and amphibians of Egypt, with a list of the species recorded from that kingdom», Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1933(3), 735 – 851.

Frost D. R. (2016), Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference. Version 6. http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

Ghobashi A. F. A., Abu Eglah M. H., Tantawy H. M., and Ibrahim A. A. (1990), «Herpetofaunal survey of Al-Arish area (North Sinai), with special reference to their habitat and seasonal distribution», Proc. Zool. Soc. Egypt, 21, 273 – 290.

Günther A. (1878), «On Reptiles from Midian collected by Major Burton», Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1878, 977 – 978.

Heyden C. H. G. von (1827), Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika von Eduard Rüppell. Reptilien, Gedruckt und in Kommission bei Heinr. Ludw. Brönner, Frankfurt am Main.

Ibrahim A. A. (2001a), «[Geographic distribution]: Bufo regularis», Herpetol. Rev., 32(2), 112.

Ibrahim A. A. (2001b), «[Geographic distribution]: Ptychadena mascareniensis», Herpetol. Rev., 32(2), 115.

Ibrahim A. A. (2001c), «The reptile community of the Zaranik Protected area, North Sinai, Egypt with special reference to their ecology and conservation», Egypt. J. Natur. Hist., 3 (Proc. of the First Int. Conf. of the Egyptian – Br. Biol. Soc.), 81 – 92.

Ibrahim A. A.-S. A. (2011), «First record of Pelophylax bedriagae (Amphibia; Ranidae) in the Suez Canal region, Egypt», Herpetol. Notes, 4, 331 – 332.

Ibrahim A. A. (2013a), «The Herpetology of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt», Vertebr. Zool., 63(1), 87 – 110.

Ibrahim A. A. (2013b), «Chapter 29. Amphibians of Egypt: a troubled resource», in: Amphibian Biology. Basic and Applied Herpetology. Vol. 27. Conservation and Decline of Amphibians: Eastern Hemisphere. Part 2. Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt, pp. 107 – 117.

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2014), «Amietophrynus regularis», in: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T54747A18368590. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T54747A18368590.en. Downloaded on 19 March 2016.

Kardousha M. M. (2002), «Preliminary survey on parasites infecting some amphibian and reptilian species fron United Arab Emirates and Qatar», Qatar Univ. Sci. J., 22, 137 – 151.

Kardousha M. M. (2009), «Wastewater wetlands can creating an attractive habitats for wildlife», Qatar Biodiv. Newslett., 11, 2 – 9.

Kraus F. (2009), Alien Reptiles and Amphibians: a Scientific Compendium and Analysis, Springer.

Lever C. (2003), Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians of the World, Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

Marx H. (1968), «Checklist of the reptiles and amphibians of Egypt», in: Special Publication United States Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Cairo.

Mertens R. (1922), «Verzeichnis der Typen in der herpetologischen Sammlung des Senckenbergischen Museums», Senckenbergiana, 4(6), 162 – 183.

Mertens R. (1957), «Weitere Unterlagen zur Herpetofauna von Iran 1956», Jh. Ver. Vaterl. Naturk. Württ., 112(1), 118 – 128.

Mertens R. (1967), «Die herpetologische Sektion des Natur-Museums und Forschungs-Institutes Senckenberg in Frankfurt a. M. nebst einem Verzeichnis ihrer Type», Senckenberg. Biol., 48(Sonderheft A), 1 – 105.

Nevo E. and Schneider H. (1976), «Mating call pattern of Green toads in Israel and its ecological correlate», J. Zool. Lond., 178(1), 133 – 145.

Ohler A. and Dubois A. (2016), «The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura)», Peer J., 4, e1553; doi: 10.7717/peerj1553.

Parker H. W. (1938), «Reptiles and amphibians from the southern Hejaz», Ann. Mag. Natur. Hist. Ser. 11, 1(5), 481 – 492.

Phillips S. J., Anderson R. P., and Schapire R. E. (2006), «Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions», Ecol. Modeling, 190, 231 – 259.

Phillips S. J. and Dudík M. (2008), «Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation», Ecography, 31, 161 – 175.

Schmidt K. P. and Marx H. (1956), «The herpetology of Sinai», Fieldiana Zool., 39(4), 21 – 40.

Steindachner F. (1901), «Berichte der Kommission für Oceanographische Forschungen. Expedition S. M. Schiff «Pola» in das Rothe Meer nördliche und südliche Hälfte. 1895/96 und 1897/98. Zoologische Ergebnisse. XVII. Bericht über die herpetologischen Aufsammlungen», Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch. Math.-Naturwiss. Klasse, 69, 325 – 335.

Stöck M., Günther R., and Böhme W. (2001), «Progress towards a taxonomic revision of the Asian Bufo viridis group: current status of nominal taxa and unsolved problems (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae)», Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden, 51(18), 253 – 319.

Stöck M., Moritz C., Hickerson M., Frynta D., Dujsebayeva T., Eremchenko V., Macey J. R., Papenfuss T. J., and Wake D. B. (2006), «Evolution of mitochondrial relationships and biogeography of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with insights in their genomic plasticity», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 41(3), 663 – 689.

Tristram H. B. (1885), The Survey of Western Palestine. The Fauna and Flora of Palestine, Palestine Exploration Fund, London.

Swets K. (1988), «Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems», Science, 240, 1285 – 1293.

Vasconcelos R., Froufe E., Brito J. C., Carranza S., and Harris D. J. (2010), «Phylogeography of the African common toad, Amietophrynus regularis, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences: inferences regarding the Cape Verde population and biogeographical patterns», Afr. Zool., 45(2), 291 – 298.

Vences M., Kosuch J., Rödel M.-O., Lötters S., Channing A., Glaw F., and Böhme W. (2004), «Phylogeography of Ptychadena mascareniensis suggests transoceanic dispersal in a widespread African-Malagasy frog lineage», J. Biogeogr., 31(4), 593 – 601.

Warren D. L., Glor R. E., and Turelli M. (2010), «ENMTools: a toolbox for comparative studies of environmental niche models», Ecography, 33(3), 607 – 611.

Werner Y. L. (1982), «Herpetological survey of the Sinai Peninsula (1967 – 1977), with emphasis on the Saharan sand community», in: N. J. Scott, Jr. (ed.), Herpetological Communities. A Symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists’ League, August 1997, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Wildlife Research Report, No. 13, pp. 153 – 161.

Werner Y. L. (1988a [1986/87]), «Bufo regularis (Amphibia: Anura) retracted from the herpetofauna of the Negev (Israel) and Petra (Jordan)», Israel J. Zool., 34(3 – 4), 239 – 243.

Werner Y. L. (1988b), «Herpetofaunal survey of Israel (1950 – 85), with comments on Sinai and Jordan and on zoogeographical heterogeneity», in: Y. Yom-Tov and E. Tchernov (eds.), The Zoogeography of Israel. The Distribution and Abundance at a Zoogeographical Crossroad, Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht – Boston – Lancaster, pp. 355 – 388.

Werner Y. L. (1988c), «Four modes of lightening of coloration in desert populations of the Green Toad, Bufo viridis», in: Zool. Middle East, 2, 68 – 71.

Werner Y. L. (1998), «The desert herpetofauna in and near Israel: a personal review of advance (1986 – 1997), with new data (Amphibia; Reptilia)», Faunist. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 21(Supplement No. 14), 149 – 161.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.