Observations on Microhabitat Use and Activity Patterns in Sitana ponticeriana (Sauria: Agamidae)

Arttatrana Pal, Mitali Madhusmita Swain, Swapnananda Rath

Abstract


Microhabitat use and activity patterns of Sitana ponticeriana were observed in their natural habitat over two consecutive years at Balukhand-Konark Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa, India. Lizards perched above the ground, mainly on herbaceous vegetation, sandy areas, cracks and crevices and small shrubs/bushes of the canopy. During the morning and late afternoon, the lizards favored herbaceous vegetation, and during early afternoon used a variety of microhabitats including shrubs/bushes, cracks and crevices, and root of the trees. Lizards were sighted in large numbers during morning and late afternoon. Sightings declined in the early afternoon with rise in ambient temperature. Daily activity patterns of all lizard size classes typically involved basking in the morning hours followed by foraging, moving and other activities. S. ponticeriana was found to be active foragers with frequent wandering movement. Foraging behavior did not vary significantly between males and females, whereas juveniles foraged near their retreats.

Keywords


activity pattern; ambient temperature; foraging activity; microhabitat use; Sitana ponticeriana

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson R. A. and Karasov W. H. (1981), «Contrast in energy intake and expenditure in sit and wait and widely foraging lizards», Oecologia, 49, 67 – 72.

Bauwens D., Castilla A. M., and Mounton F. N. (1999), «Field body temperatures, activity levels and opportunities for thermoregulation in an extreme microhabitat specialist, the girdled lizard (Cordylus macropholis)», J. Zool., 249, 11 – 18.

Belliure J., Carrascal L. M., and Diaz J. A. (1996), «Covariation of thermal biology and foraging mode in two Mediterranean lacertid lizards», Ecology, 77, 1163 – 1173.

Bennett A. F. and Gorman G. C. (1979), «Population density, thermal relations, and energetics of a tropical insular lizard community», Oecologia, 42, 339 – 358.

Butler M. A. (2005), «Foraging mode of the chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum: a challenge to the sit-and-wait versus active forager paradigm?» Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 84, 797 – 808.

Colli G. R., Peres A. K., and Zatz M. G. (1997), «Foraging mode reproductive seasonality in tropical lizards», J. Herpetol., 31, 490 – 499.

Cooper W. E. Jr. (1995), «Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards», Anim. Behav., 50, 973 – 985.

Cooper W. E. Jr. (1997), «Correlated evolution of prey chemical discrimination with foraging, lingual morphology, and vomeronasal chemoreceptor abundance in lizards», Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 41, 257 – 265.

Cooper W. E. and Whiting M. J. (2000), «Ambush and active foraging modes both occur in the scincid genus Mabuya», Copeia, 2000, 112 – 118.

Davis J. and Verbeek N. A. M. (1972), «Habitat preferences and distribution of Uta stansburiana and Sceloporus occidentalis in coastal California», Copeia, 1972, 643 – 649.

Delheusy V. and Bels V. (1992), «Kinematics of feeding behavior in Oplurus cuvieri (Reptilia: Iguanidae)», J. Exp. Biol., 170, 155 – 186.

DeNardo D. F. and Sinervo B. (1994), «Effects of steroid hormone interaction on activity and home-range size of male lizards», Horm. Behav., 28, 273 – 287.

Dunham A. E., Morin P. J., and Wilbur H. M. (1988), «Methods for the study of reptile populations», in: C. Gans and R. B. Huey (eds.), Biology of Reptilia, Ecology B, Defense and Life History, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 333 – 385.

Dutta S. K. and Acharjyo L. N. (1990), «Checklist of the herpetofauna of Orissa, India», The Snake, Japan, 22, 35 – 42.

Dutta S. K. and Acharjyo L. N. (1997), «Further additions to the herpetofauna of Orissa, India», Cobra, 30, 1 – 8.

Ellinger N., Schlatte G., Jerome N., and Hödl W. (2001), «Habitat use activity patterns of the Neotropical arboreal lizard Tropidurus (= Uracentron) azureus werneri (Tropiduridae)», J. Herpetol., 35, 395 – 402.

Grant B. W. and Dunham A. E. (1988), «Thermally imposed time constraints on the activity of the desert lizard Sceloporus merriami», Ecology, 69, 167 – 176.

Greeff J. M. and Whiting M. J. (2000), «Foraging-mode plasticity in the lizard Platysaurus broadleyi», Herpetologica, 56, 402 – 407.

Heatwole H. F. and Taylor J. (1987), Ecology of Reptiles, Surrey Beatty and Sons Limited, New South Wales, Australia, pp. 129 – 138.

Herrel A., Cleuren J., and De Vree F. (1995), «Prey capture in the lizard Agama stellio», J. Morphol., 224, 313 – 329.

Huey R. B. and Pianka E. R. (1981), «Ecological consequences of foraging mode», Ecology, 62, 991 – 999.

Huey R. B., Bennett A. F., John-Adler H., and Nagy K. A. (1984), «Locomotor capacity and foraging behaviour of Kalahari lacertid lizards», Anim. Behav., 32, 41 – 50.

Huey R. B. (1982), «Temperature, physiology and the ecology of reptiles», in: C. Gans and F. H. Pough (eds.), Biology of the Reptilia. Vol. 12, Acad. Press, New York.

Kästle W. (1998), «Studies on the ecology and behaviour of Sitana sivalensis sp. nov»., in: H. H. Schleich and W. Kästle (eds.), Contributions to the Herpetology of South Asia, Fuhlrott-Museum Wuppertal, Nepal, India, pp. 121 – 206.

Klukowski M., Ackerson B., and Nelson C. E. (2004), «Testosterone and daily activity period in laboratory-housed mountain spiny lizards, Sceloporus jarrovi», J. Herpetol., 38, 120 – 124.

Kraklau D. M. (1991), «Kinematics of prey capture and chewing in the lizard Agama agama (Squamata: Agamidae)», J. Morphol., 210, 195 – 212.

Leal M. and Fleishman L. J. (2002), «Evidence for habitat partitioning based on adaptation to environmental light in a pair of sympatric lizard species», Proc. Physiol. Soc. London, 269, 351 – 359.

Lillywhite H. B. (1887), «Temperature, energetics, and physiological ecology», in: R. A. Seigel, J. T. Collins and S. S. Novak (eds.), Snakes, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Macmillan, New York, pp. 422 – 477.

Luiselli L. (2001), «The ghost of a recent invasion in the reduced feeding rates of spitting cobras during the dry season in a rainforest region of tropical Africa?» Acta Oecol., 22, 311 – 314.

Luiselli L. (2002), «Life-history correlates of suboptimal adaptation to rainforest biota by spitting cobras, Naja nigricollis, from southern Nigeria: comparative evidences with sympatric forest cobras, Naja melanoleuca», Rev. Ecol. (Terre et Vie), 57, 123 – 133.

Martin J. and Lopez P. (1998), «Shifts in microhabitat use by the lizard Psammodromus algirus: response to seasonal change in vegetation structure», Copeia, 1998, 780 – 786.

McBrayer L. D. and Reilly S. M. (2002), «Testing amniote models of prey transport kinematics: a quantitative analysis of mouth opening patterns in lizards», Zoologica, 105, 71 – 81.

Meyers J. J. and Herrel A. (2005), «Prey capture kinematics of ant eating lizards», J. Exp. Biol., 208, 113 – 127.

Moermond T. C. (1979), «The influence of habitat structure on Anolis foraging behavior», Behaviour, 70, 147 – 167.

Pal A., Swain M. M., and Rath S. (2007), «Seasonal variation in the diet of the fan-throated lizard, Sitana ponticeriana (Sauria: Agamidae)», Herpetol. Cons. Biol., 2, 145 – 148.

Pal A., Parida S. P., and Swain M. M. (2008), «Hematological and plasma biochemistry in fan throated lizard Sitana ponticeriana (Sauria: Agamidae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 15(2), 110 – 116.

Paulissen M. A. (1988), «Ontogenetic and seasonal shifts in microhabitat use by the lizard Cnemidophorus sexlineatus», Copeia, 1988, 1021 – 1029.

Pianka E. R. (1986), Ecology and Natural History of Desert Lizards. Analyses of the Ecological Niche and Community Structure, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton.

Pietruszka R. D. (1986), «Search tactics of desert lizards: how polarized are they?» Anim. Behav., 34, 1742 – 1758.

Rajkumar S. R., Srinivas K. S., and Bhagyashri A. (2005), «Population density, microhabitat use and activity pattern of the Indian rock lizard, Psammophilus dorsalis (Agamidae)», Curr. Sci., 89, 560 – 566.

Rath S. and Pal A. (2007), «Age determination in fan-throated lizard, Sitana ponticeriana (Cuvier)», Ind. J. Gerontol., 21, 1 – 8.

Schoener T. W. (1977), «Competition and niche», in: C. Gans and D. W. Tinkle (eds.), Biology of Reptilia. Ecology and Behavior, Acad. Press, New York, pp. 35 – 136.

Schwenk K. and Throckmorton G. S. (1989), «Functional and evolutionary morphology of lingual feeding in squamate reptiles: phylogenetics and kinematics», J. Zool. London, 219, 153 – 175.

Shanbhag B. A., Srinivas K., Rajkumar S., and Radder S. (2003), «Lowering body temperature induces embryonic diapause during prolonged egg retention in the lizard, Calotes versicolor», Naturwissenschaften, 90, 33 – 35.

Smith G. R. and Ballinger R. E. (2001), «The ecological consequences of habitat and microhabitat use in lizards: a review», Contemp. Herpetol., 3, 1094 – 2246.

Sutherland W. J. (1996), Ecological Census Techniques. A Handbook, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.

Tikader B. K. and Sharma R. C. (1992), Handbook of Indian Lizards, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta.

Underwood H. (1992), «Endogenous rhythms», in: C. Gans and D. Crews (eds.), Biology of Reptilia. Hormones, Brain, and Behavior, Physiology E, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 229 – 297.

Urbani J. M. and Bels V. L. (1999), «Feeding behavior in two scleroglossan lizards: Lacerta viridis (Lacertidae) and Zonosaurus laticaudatus (Cordylidae)», J. Zool. London, 236, 265 – 290.

Vitt L. J. (1983), «Tail loss in lizards: the significance of foraging and predator escape modes», Herpetologica, 39, 151 – 162.

Vitt L. J. (1990), «The influence of foraging mode and phylogeny on seasonality of tropical lizard reproduction», Pap. Avul. Zool. Mus. Zool. Univ. São Paulo, 37, 107 – 123.

Vitt L. J. and Congdon J. D. (1978), «Body shape, reproductive effort, and relative clutch mass in lizards: resolution of a paradox», Am. Naturalist, 112, 595 – 608.

Vitt L. J. and Price H. J. (1982), «Ecological and evolutionary determinants of relative clutch mass in lizards», Herpetologica, 38, 237 – 255.

Winne C. T. and Keck M. B. (2004), «Daily activity patterns of whiptail lizards (Squamata: Teiidae: Aspidoscelis): A proximate response to environmental conditions or an endogenous rhythm?» Funct. Ecol., 18, 314 – 321.

Zug G. R., Vitt L. J., and Caldwell J. P. (2001), Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles, Acad. Press, California, pp. 301 – 313.

Zuiderwijk A. and Smit G. (1993), «Reptilian monitoring 1990 – 1992 (Reptile monitoring 1990 – 1992, in Dutch)», in: Herpetogeografische Dienst «Lacerta», Nieuwsbrief, p. 9.

Zuiderwijk A., Groenveld A., and Smit G. (1998), «Monitoring of reptiles in the Netherlands», in: C. Miaud and R. Guyetant (eds.), Monitoring of Reptiles in the Netherlands, Le Bourget du Lac, France, pp. 455 – 462.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30906/1026-2296-2019-17-%25s-22-30

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.